What are Non Communicable Diseases and its Prevention?

June 2, 2018

 

In view of the increasing burden of tackling the problem of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in India, a comprehensive change is being felt in the health sector. Overall non-communicable diseases are becoming the leading cause of death in the country, and the proportion of those killed in these deaths is more than 42 percent .Due to non-communicable diseases, both the urban and rural populations have seen a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Life is being damaged in a large number of potentially productive age groups (people aged 35-64) from these diseases.


Our country suffers from double load of disease. Non-communicable diseases (NSDs) are creating a major public health challenge. The World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the fact that if this situation continues in the same way, by the year 2030, the annual death rate due to NCD at the world level will touch 55 million levels.


According to the 2015 report of WHO, 60 percent of people die due to NCD in India, NCD is also affecting the younger generation, which is causing disruption to social economic development. Due to the loss of full productive years (34 to 64 years) from the possibilities, heavy losses are occurring at home, national and international level.


NCD burden can be greatly reduced through proper preventive and therapeutic action. Health enhancement food, increase in physical activity, weight management and tobacco / use of drugs and alcohol can contribute significantly to the prevention and management of these diseases. More than 80 percent CVD and T2DM and 33 percent of cancers can be prevented by bringing lifestyle changes. Taking nutritious and balanced diet is very important in the prevention of these diseases.


It is estimated that the existence of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke (trauma) is estimated at 62.47, 159.46, 37.00 and 1.54 per 1,000 in India. There are about 2.5 million cases of cancer in India.


Given the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and the risk components similar to major chronic non-communicable diseases, the Indian government has launched an integrated national program for the prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, CVD (cardiovascular disease) and stroke (NPCDDS). The program focuses on integration with the primary health care system through health promotion and prevention of disease, strengthening infrastructure including human resources, early diagnosis and management and the establishment of NCD cells at various levels in order to achieve optimum operational synergies. The already released National Cancer Control Program is being integrated with NPCDDS.


Maintaining ideal body weight, the total energy taken and total consumption of energy need to be balanced. Protein should be adequate in the diet the diet is very closely related to fat and quality / quantity and NCD. Excessive use of fats / oils, especially saturated fat in the diet leads to high risk of CHD, cancer, T2MM and high blood pressure. CHD rates can be reduced by using PUFA-containing oils instead of saturated fats. The amount of fat in the food also influences the sensitivity of glucose tolerance and insulin. The use of olive oil, mustard and peanut oils, such as PUFA oils, can reduce the risk of NCD.


Providing adequate amounts of fiber, phytochemicals, antioxidants and various vitamins / minerals to the body by using excess of vegetables (two to three times a day) and fruits (two times in a day) for prevention / management of NCD. Necessary. The proper amount of fiber in the food plays an important role by adapting the liver, lipoproteins, blood pressure. Regular consumption of fiber-rich foods not only helps in weight management, but also reduces serum lipid, improves glucose metabolism, regulates blood pressure and reduces abdominal swelling of the tissues. In addition, probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotic improve lipid profile and glycemic control and can also prevent colorectal cancer.


With the use of all types of tobacco and alcohol, NCDs, especially chronic obstacles, are the main risk factors for pulmonary disease. Physical inactivity contributes to major mortality rates (6 percent) and NCDs. In 2012, the World Health Assembly supported the '25 targets of 25' aimed at reducing 25 percent NCD mortality by 2025. India has taken the initiative to develop the specified national targets/indicators first to reach this goal and has reached the goal of reducing the number of deaths occurring prior to the time related to NCD.


In order to control the continuous growing NCD burden, our government has initiated many programs including National Cancer Control Program, National Tobacco Control Program and National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, CVD and Cardiovascular Disease (NPDCS). The main purpose of NPDCS is to identify and control the NCD early, to create awareness on lifestyle changes, to build capacity and strengthen the existing health care system. Under NHM NCD clinics, district hospitals / community health centers will be provided with diagnostic / medical facilities through CCU.


It is expected that adequate resources have been provided to create awareness regarding adoption of preventive health perspectives. For the prevention of primary, secondary and third level of NCD, the emphasis will be on improving dietary practices and physical activity for the purpose of improving lifestyles. It will also focus on eliminating smoking / tobacco intake, prohibition of alcohol and proper stress management. It is a satisfying thing that the government has taken various steps in this direction, so that people can live healthy life with liveliness.

 

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