What is Nicotine?
Nicotine is a chemical that contains nitrogen, which is made by several types of plants, including the tobacco plant. It is also produced synthetically. Nicotiana tabacum, the type of nicotine found in tobacco plants, comes from the nightshade family. Red peppers, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes are examples of the nightshade family. While not cancer-causing or excessively harmful on its own, nicotine is heavily addictive and exposes people to the extremely harmful effects of tobacco dependency. Smoking is the most common preventable cause of death in the United States.
Fast facts on nicotine!
Chewing or snorting tobacco products usually releases more nicotine into the body than smoking.
Nicotine is at least as difficult to give up as heroin.
The side effects of nicotine can affect the heart, hormones, and gastrointestinal system.
Some studies suggest that nicotine may improve memory and concentration.
There are more than one billion tobacco smokers worldwide. ￼
Effects of Nicotine!!!
Nicotine has a range of effects on the body.
The 'nicotine effect' Nicotine is both a sedative and a stimulant. When a body is exposed to nicotine, the individual experiences a "kick." This is partly caused by nicotine stimulating the adrenal glands, which results in the release of adrenaline.
This surge of adrenaline stimulates the body. There is an immediate release of glucose, as well as an increase in heart rate, breathing activity, and blood pressure. Nicotine also makes the pancreas produce less insulin, causing a slight increase in blood sugar or glucose. Indirectly, nicotine causes the release of dopamine in the pleasure and motivation areas of the brain. A similar effect occurs when people take heroin or cocaine. The drug user experiences a pleasurable sensation. ￼
As users become more tolerant to nicotine, they require higher doses to enjoy the same effects.
Dopamine is a brain chemical that affects emotions, movements, and sensations of pleasure and pain. If your brain dopamine levels rise, the feeling of contentment is higher. Depending on the dose of nicotine taken and the individual's nervous system arousal, nicotine can also act as a sedative.
When humans, mammals, and most other types of animals are exposed to nicotine, it increases their heart rate, heart muscle oxygen consumption rate, and heart stroke volume. These are known as pharmacologic effects.
Consuming nicotine is also linked to raised alertness, euphoria, and a sensation of being relaxed.
>Concentration and memory
Studies have shown that nicotine appears to improve memory and concentration. It is thought that this is due to an increase in acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Norepinephrine also increases the sensation of wakefulness, or arousal.
Nicotine results in increased levels of beta-endorphin, which reduces anxiety.
How the body processes nicotine??
After inhaling tobacco smoke, nicotine rapidly enters the bloodstream, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and reaches the brain within 8 to 20 seconds. Within approximately 2 hours after entering the body, half of the nicotine has gone.
How much nicotine may enter?
A smoker's body depends on the type of tobacco being used whether or not the smoker inhales the smoke whether a filter is used, and what type of filter it is? Tobacco products that are chewed, placed inside the mouth, or snorted tend to release considerably larger amounts of nicotine into the body than smoking. Nicotine is broken down in the liver.
Tolerance increases with the amount of nicotine consumed and people require higher doses to enjoy the same initial effects. As most of the nicotine in the body leaves the body during sleep, tolerance may have virtually disappeared first thing in the morning. Nicotine has less of an effect as the day progresses because of the buildup of tolerance.
Nicotine is one of the most difficult substances to quit once addicted. Nicotine is highly addictive.
People who regularly consume nicotine and then suddenly stop experience withdrawal symptoms, which may include:
-a sense of emptiness
-difficulty focusing or paying attention
The American Heart Association says that nicotine consumed from smoking tobacco is one of the hardest substances to quit. It is considered to be at least as hard as quitting heroin.
A 2013 study showed that reducing the amount of nicotine in cigarettes also brings down their level of addictiveness.
A study carried out at the National Institute on Drug Abuse found that nicotine consumption makes cocaine more addictive.
Nicotine causes a wide range of side effects in most organs and systems.
1)The circulation of the blood can be affected in the following ways:
-an increased clotting tendency, leading to a risk of harmful blood clots
-atherosclerosis, in which plaque forms on the artery wall
-enlargement of the aorta
2)Side effects in the brain include:
-dizziness and lightheaded
-irregular and disturbed sleep
-bad dreams and nightmares
-possible blood restriction
3)In the gastrointestinal system, nicotine can have the following effects:
-nausea and vomiting
-dry mouth, or xerostomia
4)The heart can experience the following after taking in nicotine:
-changes in heart rate and rhythm
-an increase in blood pressure
-constrictions and diseases of the coronary artery
-an increased risk of stroke
5)If a woman smokes while pregnant, the following risks are likely in the development of the child:
-high blood pressure
-type 2 diabetes
-problems with brain development
6)Other effects include:
-spasms in the lungs
-tremors and pain in the muscles
-increase levels of insulin and insulin resistance, contributing to the risk of diabetes
The treatment of nicotine dependency is known as smoking cessation therapy. It aims to reduce the urges to consume nicotine as well as the associated risks and health problems.
Drug treatment options for nicotine dependency include: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT): This is available in skin patches, nasal sprays, inhalers, and solutions that can be rubbed into the gums. These replace part of the nicotine normally supplemented by smoking cigarettes and reduce the severity of urges and cravings.
While NRT does not completely prevent withdrawal symptoms, a 2008 review advises that it can double the chances of quitting smoking long-term.
No single NRT product has been demonstrated as more effective than another.
A range of NRT products are available for purchase online, including skin patches, lozenges, and gum.
Counseling and psychological support
Reviews have indicated that NRT and other medications are most effective when supported by counselling and psychiatric care. This can range from counseling as simple as advice from a primary care physician to stop smoking to individual, telephone, and group therapy. These interventions can help people with nicotine dependency overcome the psychological aspects of withdrawal, such as low mood and irritability, while the medications help tackle the chemical side of dependency.